By Harold J. Metcalf
Laser cooling permits one to sluggish atoms to approximately the rate of a mosquito and to regulate their motions with unparalleled precision. This dependent approach, wherein atoms, molecules, or even microscopic beads of glass, should be trapped in small areas of unfastened area by way of beams of sunshine and in this case moved at will utilizing different beams, has revolutionized many parts of physics. particularly, it presents an invaluable examine software for the research of person atoms, for investigating the main points of chemical reactions, or even for the learn of atomic movement within the quantum area. this article starts with a evaluation of the appropriate features of quantum mechanics; it then turns to the electromagnetic interactions focused on slowing and trapping atoms, in either magnetic and optical traps. The concluding chapters talk about a vast variety of functions, together with atomic clocks, experiences of ultra-cold collision approaches, diffraction and interference of atomic beams, optical lattices, and Bose-Einstein condensation. The booklet is meant for complicated undergraduates and starting graduate scholars who've a few uncomplicated wisdom of optics and quantum mechanics. an intensive bibliography presents entry to the present learn literature.
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Across the space that lies between the exchange takes place--the lightning-flash. In the preceding chapter I have hastily alluded to the phenomenon known as the key to electricity as a utilitarian science; a means of material usefulness. These uses are all made possible under the laws of what we term INDUCTION. To comprehend this remarkable feature of electric action, it must first be understood that all electrical phenomena occur in what has been termed an "_Electrical Field_" This field may be illustrated simply.
In which are included the Dynamo, and its twin and indispensable, the Motor. Ampère is also the author of the _molecular theory_, by which alone, with our present knowledge, can the action of electricity be explained in connection with the iron core which is made a magnet by the current, and left again a mere piece of iron when the current is interrupted. Ten years later Faraday explained and applied the laws of Induction, basing them upon the demonstrations of Ampère. The use of a core of soft iron, magnetized by the passage of a current through a helix of wire wrapping it as the thread does a spool, is the indispensable feature, in some form meaning the same thing, with the same results, in all machines that are given movement to by an electric current.
The converters may contain ten tons or more of liquid metal at one time, which mass is converted from iron into steel at one operation. Forty-five years ago, or less, works that could turn out fifty tons of iron in a day were very large. Now there are many that make _five hundred tons_ of steel in the same time. Then, nearly all the work was done by hand, and men in large numbers handled the details of all processes. Now it would be impossible for human hands and strength to do the work. The steel-mill is, indeed, the most colossal combination of Steam and Steel.