By W. I. Fraser, R. Grieve
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Extra info for Communicating with Normal and Retarded Children
New York, Harper. Irwin O. C. (1941) Research on speech sounds for the first six months of life. Psychol. Bull. 38, 2 7 7 - 2 8 5 . Irwin O. C. and Chen H. P. (1941) A reliability study of speech sounds observed in the crying of newborn infants. ChildDev. 12, 3 5 1 - 3 6 8 . Irwin O. C. and Chen H. P. (1943) Speech sound elements during the first years of life: a review of the literature. /. Speech Disord. 8 , 1 0 9 - 1 2 1 . Irwin O. C. and Curry T. (1941) Vowel elements in the crying vocalization of infants under ten days of age.
So there was considerable agreement between parents and nurses about means of identifying pain and distress. Both sought medical professional help less often as the child grew older, preferring to observe him for longer continuous periods. Both nurses and parents thought the mentally handicapped became less sensitive to pain with age. Parents thought crying became less common with age, while nurses thought crying diminished with time spent in hospital. Most importantly, parents considered there was consistent behaviour ΉΕ SOUNDS AND LOOKS SORE' 27 associated with pain and that they could detect non-vocal signs signalling pain.
The mothers were not shown the whole series of 57 film portions as it was thought that they might find this distressing, and were shown instead 9 film sections of 3 children, including their own child, in each of the three situations. An audiotape of the children's cries accompanying the various conditions was presented to groups 1 and 2 without the film (Condition II), and then presented synchronized with the film 1 month later (Condition III); they were again asked to identify the situation. A rating scale devised by Stengel et al.