By A. Thomas Stavros, Cynthia L. Rapp, Steve H. Parker
This quantity is a whole and definitive consultant to appearing and studying breast ultrasound examinations. The publication explains each point of the exam in detail—from apparatus choice and studying strategies, to correlations among sonographic and mammographic findings, to express characterization of sonographic abnormalities. Complementing the textual content are greater than 1,500 illustrations, together with ultrasound scans, corresponding mammographic photos, and diagrams of key points of the examination.
Dr. Stavros completely explains the physics of breast ultrasound and the distinct probes and different gear had to produce high-resolution photos of breast tissue. Chapters on breast ultrasound anatomy display the anatomic element that may be obvious on present gear and correlate sonographic and mammographic anatomic positive factors. next chapters describe exam techniques for comparing particular abnormalities and aspect the distinguishing positive aspects of alternative cystic and stable breast lesions. additionally incorporated is a bankruptcy on Doppler characterization of breast lesions.
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Extra resources for Breast Ultrasound
The artifactual echoes are significantly reduced but not completely eradicated from the cyst with coded harmonic imaging (right). FIGURE 2–16 The left image shows a radial (RAD) view of a nodule in the left breast that was obtained with fundamental imaging and that appears to be solid. Radial views of the same nodule obtained a few seconds later with the same transducer using coded harmonic imaging show a simple cyst with all of the internal artifactual echoes suppressed (right). filtering out all lower frequency results in a narrow bandwidth, which markedly reduces axial resolution and decreases our ability to define normal anatomic structures such as duct walls and the thin, echogenic fibrous pseudocapsules that help us distinguish benign from malignant lesions.
When this type of equipment is used, many more normal structures and more alterations caused by proliferative and fibrocystic change become visible within the breast, therefore requiring a more thorough knowledge of breast anatomy and pathology for proper interpretation of findings. Such equipment is absolutely essential for BUS to realize its tremendous diagnostic potential. Current developments offer to make BUS even more valuable. Coded harmonics and spatial compounding improve contrast resolution while maintaining or improving spatial resolution, allowing us to make specific benign and malignant diagnoses in a larger percentage of cases.
Unacceptable slowing of frame rate is prevented by continuously updating the frame as each steered sweep is performed, but this creates a high persistence, which, in turn, gives rise to sensitivity to hand movements during scanning. The degree of persistence depends on the number of image sweeps per frame. Persistence is less when only three sweeps are used to create the image, but the benefits of compounding are also less. The three-sweep mode is used for surveying the breast in real time. Persistence is increased markedly in the nine-sweep mode; hence, it is more useful for targeted evaluation of structures or pathology previously identified in survey mode.