By Timothy Parsons, M. Takahashi and B. Hargrave (Auth.)
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Extra info for Biological Oceanographic Processes
These results show that both the total number of and the biomass have significantly decreased. These decreases have either been paralleled by, or may in part be tied to, a delay in the advent of the spring phytoplankton bloom from March to April and a consequent shortening of the growing season by about 1 month. The results in Fig. 18 are for the North Sea but similar results were obtained for the northeast Atlantic. The longest time series changes in a plankton community have been documented by the Plymouth laboratory (Russel et al, 1971; Southward, 1974).
The final stage in the ascent migration was characterized by a reduced rate of ascent as the animals approached the surface, followed by a period when the animals gradually dispersed themselves in the surface layers. The descent followed the reverse process and commerced 1 or 2 hr before sunrise. Diel variations in the rate of photosynthesis are quite apparent in that photosynthetic organisms require light for autotrophic growth; however, less obvious diurnal changes occur in the physiological response of phytoplankters to light.
From 0 to 12 Mg at NO^/1 between 6 and 12 m). Superimposed on the short time scale changes in Fig. 16 are other oscillations caused by tide and alternating wind speed and direction. Temporal changes within a plankton community itself are largely determined by the growth, mortality, sinking, and migration rates of the individual plankters and their predators. The most rapid growth or reproduction rates for phytoplankton are of the order of several hours but whole populations generally require at least a day or more to double in size.