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By Götz Paschmann, Stein Haaland, Rudolf Treumann

This quantity offers a extensive synthesis of the present wisdom and figuring out of the plasma physics at the back of the aurora. The aurora is not just the most wonderful average phenomena in the world, however the underlying actual procedures are anticipated to be ubiquitous within the plasma universe. spotting the big growth revamped the decade) via in situ and groundbased measurements in addition to theoretical modelling, it appeared well timed to jot down the 1st complete and built-in booklet at the topic. fresh advances drawback the rationalization of the character of the acceleration strategy of the electrons which are liable for the obvious aurora, the popularity of the basic function of the large-scale present platforms in organizing the auroral morphology, and of the interaction among debris and electromagnetic fields.

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The average energy loss of the primary auroral electrons per electron-ion pair produced is 35 eY. Closely associated with these are the red Meinel bands from Nt. These are rarely measured since they mostly overlap the 1st positive bands from neutral N 2 • The blue 1st negative bands, the red Meinel bands, and the red 1st positive bands combine to produce a magenta color. 7 nm line . , 1998). 1 nm H,B line from Hydrogen. Through charge exchange, a precipitating proton captures an electron and becomes neutral hydrogen in an excited state, giving rise to an H,B photon .

0 0' c ... ~_ eE ~:~ 0 100 - 200 600 400 200 0 - ~ f - 200 w Lo. 0 7 1.. J " . 5 3918. ' 21. 2. The top panel shows multiple arcs seen in the all sky image, taken by a low-light level TV-camera from an aircraft, and the FAST orbit mapped to 110 km altitude . The second panel shows the electron energy spectrum measured by FAST. The third panel is the precipitated energy flux on a linear scale mapped down to 110 km. When ion beams were present , the flux was mapped assuming a parallel potential between FAST and I 10 km equal to the mean energy of the ion beam.

Above roughly 1000 kilometers, the ion-neutral collision frequencies Vi and Ve become nearly zero, and so the Pedersen and Hall conductivities vanish. For O'H this is not directly obvious from Eq. 2); it follows from cancellation of electron and ion contributions. We note, however, that it is not meaningful to extend these expressions far into the magnetosphere, where the effects of neutrals become negligible and the conductivity should be based on (however, rare) ion-electron collisions. 2 , Ohm's law in the magnetosphere becomes significantly modified.

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