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By Peter F. Liddle (auth.), Dr. Bart A. Ellenbroek, Dr. Alexander R. Cools (eds.)

The creation of chlorpromazine in 1953, and haloperidol in 1958, into scientific perform dramatically altered the remedy of schizophrenic sufferers. even supposing representing under no circumstances a medication for this serious psychiatric in poor health­ ness, it allowed, for the 1st time, to properly regulate the critical hallu­ cinations and delusional ideals which stop those sufferers from prime a roughly self sustaining lifestyles. certainly those antipsychotics (and the numerous congeners that have been to stick to) considerably decreased the quantity ofchronic schizophrenic inpatients in psychiatric clinics worldwide. even though quickly after their advent it grew to become transparent that, like several different on hand medicines, antipsychotics have been not at all miracle medicines. in truth, significant difficulties seemed. First, the antipsychotics had little or no influence at the so-called unfavourable or illness indicators, like social isolation, apathy and anhedonia, and secondly almost all antipsychotics produced a few side-effects, of which the neurological (often known as additional­ pyramidal) side-effects have been the main difficult. in particular the tardive dyskinesia, which happened in approximately 15 to twenty% of the sufferers after seasoned­ longed remedy, represented a tremendous challenge within the remedy of schizo­ phrenic patients.

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Anticholinergic drugs should not reduce the effects of antipsychotics in the model 6. Chronic treatment should not reduce the effects of antipsychotic drugs in the model 7. Benzodiazepines should enhance the effects of antipsychotic drugs standard"-like results in the model. In screening models for antipsychotic drugs, a number of antipsychotics have often shown up as false negatives. Most prominent among them are clozapine and sulpiride. A false positive (criterion 3) is a drug which behaves like the "gold standard" in the model, yet appears to be ineffective in clinical practice.

Schizophr Bull 24: 11-20 Atypical Antipsychotics ed. A. Ellenbroek and A. R. Cools © 2000 Birkhauser Verlag BasellSwitzerland Animal models for schizophrenia: an introduction Bart A. Ellenbroek and Alexander R. Cools Department ofPsychoneuropharmacology, University ofNijmegen, Po. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands Introduction Although both Kraepelin and Bleuler already recognised schizophrenia as a brain disease, the exact underlying brain disturbance(s) have so far not been identified.

Am J Psychiat 154: 1525-1529 59 Bilder RM, Turkel E, Lipschutz-Broch L, Lieberman JA (1992) Antipsychotic medication effects on neuropsychological functions. Psychopharmacol Bull 28: 353-366 60 Green JF, King DJ (1996) Cognitive functioning in schizophrenia: effects ofdrug treatment. CNS Drugs 6: 382-398 61 Mortimer AM (1997) Cognitive function in schizophrenia - do neuroleptics make a difference? Pharmacol Biochem Behav 56: 789-795 62 Waddington JL, O'Callaghan E (1997) What makes an antipsychotic "atypical"?

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