By John M. Hagedorn
“Street gangs replicate the inhuman targets and greed of society’s trendsetters and deities at the same time they struggle to the demise over scraps from the desk of the overseas drug alternate. yet John Hagedorn, routinely, additionally reveals wish within the contradictory values of outlaw youth—selflessness, harmony, and love amid cupidity and directionless rage—and he keeps the wish tradition of resistance will eventually be successful over the forces of self-destruction. even if one stocks his optimism or no longer, he makes a compelling case that the way forward for the area may be decided at the streets of our cities.” —Mike Davis, from the Foreword
“A global of Gangs is an illuminating trip round the cultures, lives, tragedies, and goals of hundreds of thousands of rebellious formative years round the planet. it truly is an necessary paintings to appreciate the realm we are living in and crucial interpreting for college students of towns and communities.” —Manuel Castells
For the greater than one thousand million those that now reside in city slums, gangs are ubiquitous beneficial properties of way of life. notwithstanding nonetheless such a lot heavily linked to American towns, gangs are an entrenched, all over the world phenomenon that play an important function in a variety of actions, from drug dealing to extortion to non secular and political violence. In an international of Gangs, John Hagedorn explores this foreign proliferation of the city gang because of the ravages of globalization.
Looking heavily at gang formation in 3 international cities-Chicago, Rio de Janeiro, and Capetown-he discovers that a few gangs have institutionalized as a technique to confront a hopeless cycle of poverty, racism, and oppression. particularly, Hagedorn finds, the nihilistic charm of gangsta rap and its road ethic of survival “by any ability necessary” presents very important insights into the ideology and endurance of gangs worldwide. This groundbreaking paintings concludes on a hopeful observe. featuring ways that gangs will be inspired to beat their violent trends, Hagedorn appeals to neighborhood leaders to exploit the urgency, outrage, and resistance universal to either gang existence and hip-hop that allows you to deliver gangs into broader events for social justice.
John M. Hagedorn is affiliate professor of legal justice on the collage of Illinois, Chicago. he's editor of Gangs within the international urban and writer of the hugely influential humans and people: Gangs, Crime, and the Underclass in a Rustbelt City.
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Additional resources for A World of Gangs: Armed Young Men and Gangsta Culture
13 By the end of the 1990s, the IMF was imposing its neoclassical structural adjustment formula of cutting social beneﬁts in more than eighty countries. S. 15 The demise of the state may be premature, however. “The state does not disappear,” Manuel Castells adds. 19 What we can learn from a quick glance at the four corners of the globe is that gangs and other kinds of armed nonstate actors are a normal presence. ” Warlords, Drug Lords, Triads, and Gangs In the United States, Europe, South Asia, Latin America, and Africa, the complex conditions we lump together under the term globalization give rise the problem with definitions 27 to or support the prevalence of a bewildering lineup of gangs and other similar armed groups.
In Asia, more than a half billion people live in desperate urban conditions. The West is not left out either. ” People in the third world are ﬂocking to cities as rural opportunities disappear, only to ﬁnd equally bleak prospects. ”9 Many urban areas are transforming into “megacities” of more ghetto, favela, and township 5 than twenty million people. By 2025 Asia alone could have ten or eleven such cities. 2 percent of Africa’s population under the age of ﬁfteen, twice the percentage in North America.
Source: United Nations, World Urbanization Prospects (revised edition, 1999). 16 Migration + cities + poverty + slums + discrimination + youth = gangs. Then and now. Polarization, Social Exclusion, and the Retreat of the State In the United States, criminology has used the term social disorganization to describe the conditions for the growth of youth gangs. 17 The notion of social disorganization has some intuitive charm. The concept is that gangs form out of unsupervised peer groups, which are unsupervised because the formal institutions of society—schools, church, family—break down.