Download PDF by Gordon Martel: A Companion to Europe 1900-1945

By Gordon Martel

A significant other to Europe 1900-1945 ВОЕННАЯ ИСТОРИЯ, ИСТОРИЯ Издательство: Blackwell Publishing LtdСерия: Blackwell partners to eu historyАвтор(ы): Gordon MartelЯзык: EnglishГод издания: 2006Количество страниц: 587ISBN: 978-1-4051-0664-1Формат: pdf (e-book)Размер: 4,35 mb RAPIDили IFOLDER zero

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As touched upon above, most police forces were closely involved in the regulation of the poor. While some were sympathetic, many officers displayed harsh attitudes towards vagrants, gypsies, and others on the margins of society. Also, more obviously, in day-to-day beat policing most officers still spent much of their time traversing the poorer areas of towns and cities. Given this, it is likely that perceptions of the involvement of the poor with crime became self-fulfilling. The greater scrutiny given to slum areas may have meant that more crime was detected there in proportion to other areas, thus reinforcing public perceptions and leading the police to 16 paul lawrence concentrate even more of their efforts there, which in turn led again to yet more crime being detected.

Such notions were further elaborated on. ” He admitted that variants of this type existed, but felt that the basic distinction between city and rural life would eventually produce a new type of human. ”6 The work on these issues of American sociologists of the Chicago School, such as Robert Parks and Louis Wirth, was also widely debated in Europe. Obviously, the concept of a specifically “urban” way of life also generated discussion well beyond the academic sphere. Most commentators had mixed views, but among some, in the artistic field for example, primarily positive views prevailed.

Lack of investment during the war created complications for planners throughout the 1920s and 1930s. However, the destruction wrought by World War II was of another magnitude altogether. Aerial bombardment quickly became the weapon of choice for strategists. This had grave implications for the cities of most combatant nations and for Germany in particular. Fifty percent of the built-up areas of German cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants in 1939 had been destroyed by 1945. Equally, conflict on the ground could have similarly grave consequences for cities, as in the case of Stalingrad.

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